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Archive for the ‘Healthy People’ Category

christmas-table

Are you trying to eat healthier this holiday season but having problems?  These ideas may help you to make a few changes that can add up over the holidays.

  • Plan ahead – This includes making menus and shopping. You can usually do some of the prep ahead of time such as chopping and cutting up vegetables.  You may want to cook your meat a day ahead, slice, refrigerate, and then reheat before ready to serve.  Be sure to check temperatures of meat:  145°F for beef, pork, lamb or fish and 165°F for turkey or any kind of poultry.
  • Start with a good Breakfast, whether you are having the party at your house or attending one. Ideas for a quick breakfast include:
    • overnight oatmeal with toppings (fruit dried or fresh, nuts, cinnamon, cranberry sauce)
    • Frittata – use cut up vegetables and/or meats ( You can make ahead as muffins and then freeze, unthaw, heat and eat).Breakfast vegetable muffins
    • Breakfast casserole – make one the night before and leave in the refrigerator. Cook in the morning and serve. (Just watch the cheese and processed meats so you don’t over indulge.)
    • Breakfast Burrito – Cook eggs and add a can of refried beans, salsa and cheese. Heat until bubbly and serve in a tortilla.
  • Get Your Family Involved. Check Pinterest for decorative veggie or fruit tray ideas.   Let your children or grandchildren decide which you will make, and then turn the process over to them.  (With younger children you may need to pre-chop for safety.) They will eat more veggies or fruit this way.  Examples:  Wreath, Santa, Tree, snowman, Words – like joy.   Vegetable Christmas tree
  • Side Dish Swap Out. Instead of the usual, try roasted vegetables; sweet potatoes with apple slices and dried or fresh cranberries, or mashed with crushed pineapple; reduce the amount of extras you put in mashed potatoes; instead of green bean casserole try a green beans and cranberry dish; and/or make your own cranberry sauce with less sugar and actual cranberries in it.
  • Make-over your drinks. Serve infused water with cranberries, raspberries, apple or your favorite fruit.  Mix seltzer water with cranberry juice or your favorite juice.  Serve unsweetened tea or coffee.  Remember alcoholic drinks are high in calories, so use caution.   water with raspberries
  • Bake-It Healthier. For baked goods swap out the oil or butter for unsweetened applesauce, mashed bananas, or other fruit baby food.  In pumpkin pie use non-fat evaporated milk and cut back the sugar by ¼ to 1/3.   Switch half the flour to whole grain flour.  Use low-fat yogurt in place of sour cream.  Try salt-free seasoning and spice mixes.
  • Sweet Switch Out. Serve a Trifle, baked apples with cinnamon, miniature desserts, or banana pudding parfait using ginger snaps, bananas and pudding.
  • Get Physically active. It helps us all feel better and helps limit the weight gain.
  • Wrap it Up with Food Safety. Be sure to follow food safety rules.  Wash your hands.  Follow the 2-hour rule.  Questions on meats and Food storage containersturkey – Call the USDA Meat/Poultry Hotline – 1-888-674-6854 available year around.
  • Enjoy the Holidays. Allow yourself to enjoy the Holidays!  Plan some time to enjoy the things you enjoy doing during the Holidays.

Author:  Pat Brinkman, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Fayette County.

Reviewer: Lisa Barlage, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Ross County.

References:

Brinkman, P. (2015).  Modifying a Recipe to be Healthier.  Available at https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/HYG-5543

Food Safety Information. (2018). Available at https://www.foodsafety.gov/

Pinterest. (2018). Holiday Veggie Trays.  Available at https://www.pinterest.com/search/pins/?rs=ac&len=2&q=holiday%20veggie%20trays%20christmas&eq=Holiday%20veggie%20trays&etslf=14631&term_meta[]=holiday%7Cautocomplete%7C4&term_meta[]=veggie%7Cautocomplete%7C4&term_meta[]=trays%7Cautocomplete%7C4&term_meta[]=christmas%7Cautocomplete%7C4

USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline:  Available at https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/programs-and-services/contact-centers/usda-meat-and-poultry-hotline

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christmas tree with decorations during nighttime

Photo by Sebi Pintilie on Pexels.com

Here it is–December 2018. Another year is ending!  It is a wonderful time of year to celebrate with family and friends.  A time to share joy and kindness.

Let’s look back for a moment. Did you reach all your goals this year?  Did you keep those New Year Resolutions?  Every year we resolve to make changes and improve ourselves, yet often end up feeling tired and over-extended.  Challenge yourself to end this year, and begin 2019, with being present and living your best life.

Before the end of the year:

  • Create a list of the 15 best things you accomplished
  • Make a list of 5 things you wish you’d done
  • Extend a heartfelt “Thank You” to the people who helped get you thru the year
  • Forgive
  • Be grateful
  • Donate 10 personal items to a good cause
  • Apologize for all of the mistake you made
  • Visit that person you kept saying you would visit
  • Make a list of 10 items that surprised you
  • Exercise
  • Eat well
  • Create an action plan to define your path for 2019

Enjoy December.

Written by:  Beth Stefura, Extension Educator, Family & Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Mahoning County, stefura.2@osu.edu

Reviewed by: Donna Green, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Erie County, green.308@osu.edu

Sources: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/stories/ten_tips_for_enjoying_holidays.html

 

 

 

 

 

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Caring for a family member with dementia can be challenging and the holiday season can add more to an already full plate for many caregivers. The holidays are a time for family and friends to come together, share traditions, and make memories, but for families living with Alzheimer’s and other dementias, it may take additional care.

One of the things to consider when planning for the picture of familyholidays with a person with dementia is the stage of the illness. Those family members in the early stages can experience minor changes, and some may go unnoticed. However, the person with dementia may have trouble following conversations or may repeat himself or herself. They may feel overwhelmed or uncomfortable, and might withdraw from the group.  Do not point out errors in their conversations or their difficulty recalling specifics. Periodically checking in with them with a simple “How are you coping with everything?” can help you determine their comfort level with the activities.

It is also helpful to inform other family members as to what to expect from their loved one when they arrive. A group text or email explaining changes to memory or behaviors can help the family prepare in advance. In the message, you can explain any unpredictable emotions, memory loss or possible soothing techniques.

As the caregiver, you also need to be good to yourself. The stress of caregiving responsibilities layered with holiday traditions can take a toll. Some variations might need to be made to your holiday traditions. Some things that may assist in lessening the holiday stress are:

  • Adjust your expectations. Talk to family members about your current caregiving situation and make them aware of what you realistically can and cannot do.
  • Ask for help. No one should expect you to be the sole person responsible for maintain every holiday tradition. Have other family members contribute to the meal or even hosting an event at their home.
  • Set limits. Break large gatherings up into smaller visits. Set time limits for visitors to help the person with dementia and yourself from getting overtired.
  • Make some variations. Sometimes evening is a time of agitation for people with dementia. Move the celebrations to mid-day and have a holiday brunch instead of dinner.
  • Mind Your Mindset. Negative thinking actually activates your body’s stress response, so steer your mind to the positives when you start down that slippery slope. Try to stay mindful, concentrating on the present moment. Think about what you can accomplish instead of what isn’t getting done; revel in the holiday joys you experience instead of focusing on those you bypass; appreciate the help you are receiving rather than resenting those who aren’t supportive.
  • Avoid triggers. Be careful of blinking lights and noisy locations as this might exaggerate confusion and agitation.
  • Maintain a normal routine. Keep routines as normal as possible. This will help keep the holidays from being disruptive or confusing.
  • Plan time for a break or rest period. While your loved one may relish in the company and holiday celebrations, he may need a place to retreat. Arrange for a quiet place for your loved one to take a break from the hustle and bustle of the holiday celebration if needed.

Remember that perfection is not the goal of the holidays. There are many factors we can’t control when it comes to our loved ones’ health and abilities, so adjust your view of a successful holiday. Focus on what feels necessary to produce a holiday feeling and create good memories.

For more ideas and support, join ALZConnected, an online support community where caregivers like you share tips on what has worked for them.

 

Writer: Kathy Goins, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Clark County, goins.115@osu.edu

 

Reviewer: Shannon Carter, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Fairfield County

 

Sources:

Alzheimer’s Association, (2017). The Holidays and Alzheimers. Retrieved from: https://www.alz.org/help-support/resources/holidays

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2018). Helping Alzheimer’s Caregivers. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/features/alzheimers-caregivers/

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This is a great time of year to enjoy root vegetables. These are the tubers and roots of vegetables that we can eat. Root vegetables grow underground and absorb a lot of nutrients from the soil. They are concentrated with antioxidants, Vitamins C, B, A, and iron. They are also packed with carbohydrates and fiber, which help you feel full, and aid in regulating your blood sugar and digestive system.

In addition to power packed nutritional density, root vegetables are also extremely versatile in cooking not to mention inexpensive. Here are some root vegetable ideas and preparation suggestions.

Picture of roasted vegetables

Beets — Beets are higher in both fiber and sugar than other root vegetables, and are a good source of folate, potassium and manganese. Beets are high in naturally occurring nitrates and may help to support healthy blood pressure. Roasting or steaming beets whole makes them easier to peel. They also are delicious raw, shredded and tossed in salads or thinly sliced and baked into chips.

Carrots — Carrots are commonly orange on grocery store shelves, yet in nature they come in a variety of sizes, colors and flavors. Carrots are a great source of vitamin A from beta carotene. Carrots are wonderful in a variety of cooking methods – raw, roasted, or in soup. The more fresh the carrot, the sweeter and juicier it will be.

Celery Root — Celery root, or celeraic, is a big ball of a vegetable that’s a bit tough to peel. But once you do you’ll be rewarded with an earthy, almost herbal flavor that comes through whether raw, roasted, pureed or mashed.

Parsnips — Parsnips are similar to carrots although white in color. They’re earthy-sweet and starchy like potatoes. One-half cup of cooked parsnips contains about 3 grams of fiber and more than 10 percent of the daily values of vitamin C and folate. Choose smaller parsnips so they are more tender, then peel and cube for a roast, mash, puree or fries.

Radishes — Radishes have a crisp, spicy bite that mellows under heat. Choose firm radishes with a healthy sheen and no cracks, and slice them into salads or on a sandwich, or sauté them in butter with mint.

Rutabagas — Rutabagas are a cross between cabbage and turnip. Rutabagas are more fibrous than turnips and slightly sweeter and are a great source of vitamin C. Choose firm ones smaller than a softball for roasts and mashes.

Sweet Potatoes — Sweet potatoes great sources of fiber and vitamin A. And they are as versatile as they are delicious. Try them roasted, boiled, broiled, sautéed, mashed, steamed or baked!

Turnips — When harvested young, turnips are tender and sweet. Look for small ones with firm, pearly white skin. You can even eat the turnip greens (they’ve got a spicy, mustard flavor), and are packed with vitamins A, K & C.

Check out this recipe on Roasted Root Vegetables for a hearty mix-up!

Written by: Shannon Carter, Extension Educator, Ohio State University Extension, Fairfield County.

Reviewed by:  Daniel Remley, Extension Specialist, Ohio State University Extension.

Sources:

“Good for You: Root Vegetables.” Kansas State Research and Extension. Kansas SNAP Ed. (retrieved 11/7/2018). https://www.ksre.k-state.edu/humannutrition/newsletters/good-for-you/goodforyou-documents/goodforyoufall2015.pdf

Larson, H. MS, RD (October 3, 2017) “9 Fall Produce Picks to Add to Your Plate for a hearty mix-up.” American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. https://www.eatright.org/food/nutrition/healthy-eating/9-fall-produce-picks-to-add-to-your-plate

 

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Two snowmen on a sunny day

What comes to mind with the mention of the holidays or holiday season? For me, warm and happy thoughts and feelings fill my mind and my heart as I remember past holidays.  Anticipation for the upcoming festivities and celebrations also prevail. While many of you share my thoughts and feelings, not everyone has the same view of the holidays. For millions of people struggling with loss or some type of mental health challenge, the holidays are anything but jolly.

Since one in four Americans has some type of mental health challenge in any given year, it is very likely that each us knows or will interact with someone who may be struggling. According to a survey from 2014, the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) reported that approximately 24% of people with a diagnosed mental illness found that the holidays made their condition “a lot” worse and 40% “somewhat” worse.” So, just because most people view the holiday season as merry and bright, does not mean everyone shares that sentiment.

The Mayo Clinic offers these suggestions to help reduce stress and depression that can occur with the holiday season:

  1. Acknowledge your feelings. If someone close to you has recently died or you can’t be with loved ones, realize that it’s normal to feel sadness and grief. It’s OK to take time to cry or express your feelings. You can’t force yourself to be happy just because it’s the holiday season.
  2. Reach out. If you feel lonely or isolated, seek out community, religious or other social events. They can offer support and companionship. Volunteering your time to help others also is a good way to lift your spirits and broaden your friendships.
  3. Be realistic. The holidays don’t have to be perfect or just like last year. As families change and grow, traditions and rituals often change as well. Choose a few to hold on to, and be open to creating new ones. For example, if your adult children can’t come to your house, find new ways to celebrate together, such as sharing pictures, emails or videos.
  4. Set aside differences. Try to accept family members and friends as they are, even if they don’t live up to all of your expectations. Set aside grievances until a more appropriate time for discussion. And be understanding if others get upset or distressed when something goes awry. Chances are they’re feeling the effects of holiday stress and depression, too.
  5. Stick to a budget. Before you go gift and food shopping, decide how much money you can afford to spend. Then stick to your budget. Don’t try to buy happiness with an avalanche of gifts. Here are some ideas:Hands with blue mittens on holding a snow flake
    • Donate to a charity in someone’s name.
    • Give homemade gifts.
    • Start a family gift exchange.
  6. Plan ahead. Set aside specific days for shopping, baking, visiting friends and other activities. Plan your menus and then make your shopping list. That’ll help prevent last-minute scrambling to buy forgotten ingredients. Don’t forget to line up help for party prep and cleanup.
  7. Learn to say no. Saying yes when you should say no can leave you feeling resentful and overwhelmed. Friends and colleagues will understand if you can’t participate in every project or activity. If it’s not possible to say no when your boss asks you to work overtime, try to remove something else from your agenda to make up for the lost time.
  8. Don’t abandon healthy habits. Don’t let the holidays become a free-for-all. Overindulgence only adds to your stress and guilt. Try these suggestions:
    • Have a healthy snack before holiday parties so that you don’t go overboard on sweets, cheese or drinks.
    • Get plenty of sleep.
    • Incorporate regular physical activity into each day.
  9. Take a breather. Make some time for yourself. Spending just 15 minutes alone, without distractions, may refresh you enough to handle everything you need to do. Find something that reduces stress by clearing your mind, slowing your breathing and restoring inner calm. Some options may include:
    • Taking a walk at night and stargazing.
    • Listening to soothing music.
    • Getting a massage.
    • Reading a book.
  10. Seek professional help if you need it. Despite your best efforts, you may find yourself feeling persistently sad or anxious, plagued by physical complaints, unable to sleep, irritable and hopeless, and unable to face routine chores. If these feelings last for a while, talk to your doctor or a mental health professional.

The holiday season can be stressful, but with some thoughtful planning and by using some of these suggestions, it doesn’t have to be.

 

Writer: Misty Harmon, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Perry County, harmon.416@osu.edu

Reviewer: Lisa Barlage, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension,  Ross County, barlage.7@osu.edu

Photo:

https://pixabay.com/en/snowman-winter-snowmen-holiday-640366/

https://pixabay.com/en/snow-winter-mittens-snowflake-cold-1918794/

Sources:

National Alliance on Mental Health, (2017). Managing Your Mental Health During the Holidays. Retrieved from: https://www.nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/December-2017/Managing-Your-Mental-Health-During-the-Holidays

National Alliance on Mental Health, (2014). Mental Health and the Holiday Blues. Retrieved from: https://www.nami.org/Press-Media/Press-Releases/2014/Mental-health-and-the-holiday-blues

Mayo Clinic, (2017). Stress, depression and the holidays: Tips for coping. Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20047544

National Alliance on Mental Health, (2015). Tips for Managing the Holiday Blues. Retrieved from: https://www.nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/November-2015/Tips-for-Managing-the-Holiday-Blues

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Christmas Tree

My Christmas Tree

I love the holiday season. The hustle, the bustle, the decorations and most importantly spending time with my family, friends and loved ones. I enjoy making home decor and gifts for others. But….. sometimes I take on a little more than I should and find myself stressed out. I bet I am not the only one who is over-committed.

It can also be common for our health goals to take a backseat to the celebrations and obligations of the season. Do you want some tips and ideas to relax and enjoy the holidays in a healthier way this year? Join the CALM Down for the Holidays email wellness challenge for healthy living tips and encouragement to help you make the most of this holiday season.

The “CALM Down for the Holidays Challenge is an on-line challenge designed to help you explore ways to simplify the upcoming holiday season. Messages will include tips to help you:

  • Find your Quiet Place
  • Reduce Stress
  • Move More
  • Practice Mindfulness
  • Explore Gratitude
  • Feather Your Nest
  • Eat Healthy Meals
  • Reflect on Wellness/Self Care
  • Simplify Holiday Routine
  • Improve Sleep Habits

Do you need a little extra motivation to help you get started? Are you stressed for time and need ideas to help you fit activity into your day? If so, join me for this Challenge!

Each week you will receive two free e-communications, containing wellness and reflection tips. In addition, a checklist will be available for download to help participants track their progress. Pre- and post- online surveys collect comments to improve future challenges and track participant progress. You will also have access to additional information on Blogs, Facebook and Wellness Text Messages.

Interested in participating in this on-line challenge? 

Sign up by following this link to enroll: http://go.osu.edu/calmpick18You will be enrolled and begin receiving e-communications starting the week of November 19th. While Facebook™ will be utilized; participants only need to have an email address.

Sample of Challenge Check Off

Challenge Check Off

Writer: Michelle Treber, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Pickaway County, treber.1@osu.edu

Reviewer: Marilyn Rabe, Extension Educator, Family and Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University Extension, Franklin County, rabe.9@osu.edu

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A staggering 30.3 million people in the United States have diabetes, millions of which are undiagnosed. Diabetes is a condition where blood sugar (glucose) levels are higher than recommended for good health.  Glucose is a type of sugar found in the foods we eat and is an important source of energy for the body.  Sources of glucose in the diet include: breads, cereals, rice, noodles, fruits, starchy vegetables, dried beans (examples navy and pinto), and milk.  Insulin allows the body to use glucose for energy. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes.  People with type 2 diabetes, the majority of who are adults, do not have adequate amounts of insulin or the insulin they do have does not work as effectively. This results in elevated blood sugar (glucose) levels and diabetes.

The impact diabetes has on our health and wallet is eye-opening.  Diabetes contributes to cardiovascular disease, cancer, dementia, kidney disease and blindness.  The estimated cost of diagnosed diabetes in 2017 was in the hundreds of billions of dollars!

In addition to diabetes, prediabetes has become a major health concern in the United States.  Over 86 million Americans have prediabetes, a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but are not high enough to be classified as diabetes.  Prediabetes increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.  Because prediabetes is often without symptoms, most people are unaware they have it.  Testing for prediabetes and diabetes identifies those with the disease and allows healthcare professionals to manage the disease sooner. Lifestyle changes, which include weight loss, may help to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.  If diagnosed with diabetes, early treatment can help prevent long-term complications of the disease.

picture of finger stick blood sugar test

Symptoms of diabetes include the following: increased urination, increased thirst, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, and sores that do not heal.  Anyone who has these symptoms should be tested for diabetes.  People without symptoms who are overweight or obese and have one or more of the additional risk factors, should be screened for prediabetes and diabetes.  These risk factors include: parent or sibling with diabetes, African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, Pacific Islander ethnicity, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, low HDL (less than 35mg/dl), elevated triglycerides (greater than 250 mg/dl), polycystic ovary syndrome, and physical inactivity.  Other forms of diabetes include type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually is found in children and young adults. Often these individuals have diabetes symptoms and significantly high levels of glucose in their blood when they are diagnosed.  Gestational diabetes, is diabetes newly diagnosed in women between their 24-28th week of pregnancy.

Testing for diabetes is done through blood tests in a variety of ways.  These blood tests include: fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, random plasma glucose and a hemoglobin A1C test.  Below find a description of the main types of tests used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes:

Fasting plasma glucose test– Blood glucose level is measured after not eating or drinking anything except small amounts of water for at least 8 hours.

Oral glucose tolerance test– Blood glucose level is measured every hour for 2 to 3 hours after drinking a glucose-containing beverage. First, you must have fasted (nothing to eat or drink except water) for 8 hours before drinking the glucose-containing beverage.

Random plasma glucose test– Blood glucose is measured at any time with no consideration to whether you have eaten or not. **Cannot be used to diagnose prediabetes.

Hemoglobin A1c test– This blood test gives you an average blood glucose level over the last 2-3 months.  This test is not accurate if you have anemia.

In order to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes it is normally verified with a second test on a different day.  A fasting blood glucose of 126 mg/dl or above on two different occasions, confirms diabetes.  A random plasma blood glucose of 200 or greater on more than one occasion is considered a positive test result for diabetes.  A hemoglobin A1C result of 6.5 % or above on more than one occasion is also symptomatic of diabetes.  Positive oral glucose tolerance test results differ between pregnant and non-pregnant populations. The main differences include the amount of glucose-containing beverage consumed, and the frequency of blood glucose measurements.  Generally, in non-pregnant women, a blood glucose value over 200mg/dl two hours after drinking a glucose-containing beverage (containing 75 grams of glucose) is indicative of diabetes.  In the pregnant population more glucose is given and blood glucose levels are measured multiple times.

Prediabetes is also diagnosed with blood testing.  Fasting plasma glucose levels between 100-125 mg/dl indicate the presence of prediabetes.  An oral glucose tolerance test between 140-199 mg/dl two hours after drinking a glucose-containing beverage also indicates prediabetes.  More recently hemoglobin A1C has been used to diagnose prediabetes.  A hemoglobin A1C result of between 5.7% and 6.4 % is consistent with prediabetes.

Please find below two links that can help determine if you are at risk for diabetes or prediabetes.

Diabetes Risk Test:  http://www.diabetes.org/are-you-at-risk/diabetes-risk-test/

Prediabetes Risk Test: https://doihaveprediabetes.org/prediabetes-risk-test.html

WITTEN BY: Joyce Riley, MS, RD, LD, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator, OSU Extension, Union County

REVIEWED BY: Daniel Remley, Associate Professor, Field Specialist, Food and Nutrition and Wellness, OSU Extension

 

SOURCES:

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2018; 41 (Supplement 1): S13-S27.  https://doiorg10/10.2337/dc 18-S002

American Diabetes Association (2018) Diabetes Risk Test.  http://www.diabetes.org/are-you-at-risk/diabetes-risk-test/

American Diabetes Association (2017) Prediabetes Risk Test. https://doihaveprediabetes.org/prediabetes-risk-test.html

Mayo Clinic (2018) Diabetes. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20371444

MedlinePlus National Institutes of Health (2018) Diabetes. https://medlineplus.gov/diabetes.html

National Diabetes Education Program (2018) Guiding Principles for the Care of People with or at Risk for Diabetes.  https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/communication-programs/ndep/health-professionals/guiding-principles-care-people-risk-diabetes

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (2016) Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis.   https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes

WebMD (2016) Diagnosis of Diabetes.  https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/diagnosis-diabetes#1

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